Unit 1 Women of achievement Ⅰ.阅读理解(建议用时16′) A Who do you think was the most important woman of the past 100 years? Jane Addams (1860－1935) Addams helped the poor and worked for peace. She provided shelters， education opportunities and services for people in need. In 1931, Addams became the first American woman to win the Nobel Peace Prize. Rachel Carson (1907－1964) Rachel Carson was born in the rural river town of Springdale, Pennsylvania in America. The popular book Silent Spring by Rachel Carson in 1962 made people realize the dangers and the harmful effects of pollution on humans and on the world s lakes and oceans. Angela Merkel (1954－) In 2005, Germans chose Angela Merkel as their first woman head of the country. She had been a scientist in the past. As Germany s leader, she has had an effect on the whole world. Sandra Day O Connor (1930－) When Sandra Day O Connor finished her class at Stanford Law School in 1952, she could not find work because she was a woman. However, she became the first woman to join the US Supreme Court in 1981 after years of hard work. Margaret Thatcher (1925－2013) In 1979, Margaret Thatcher became Britain s first woman Prime Minister. She served until 1990, which made her the first British leader to serve three terms in a row. Because of her high standards and strong will, people called her Britain s Iron Lady. Marie Curie (1867－1934) Polish－born scientist Marie Curie discovered that some types of metal give off energy called radiation. Her research led to new medical treatments and arms. She received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1903 and in Chemistry in 1911. 篇章导读：本文是记叙文。你认为谁是过去一百年中最重要的女性呢？本文介绍了对世界有巨大影响的六位伟大的女性。 1．Who once won the Nobel Prize? A．Jane Addams and Marie Curie. B．Jane Addams and Margaret Thatcher. C．Marie Curie and Angela Merkel. D．Marie Curie and Rachel Carson. 答案：A 细节理解题。根据第二段最后一句可知，Jane Addams曾获诺贝尔和平奖；根据最后一段最后一句可知，Marie Curie曾获诺贝尔物理学奖和化学奖。故选A项。 2．We can infer from the text that Rachel Carson worked to ________. A．help the poor B．spread geographic knowledge C．protect the environment D．protect the rights of women 答案：C 推理判断题。根据文章第三段对Rachel Carson的描述可知，她写的书让人们意识到污染对人类及世界上的湖泊、海洋的危害。由此可推知，C项正确。 3．What do Angela Merkel and Margaret Thatcher have in common? A．Both of them were scientists before coming to power. B．Both of them became the first woman head of their country. C．Both of them are famous for being strict. D．Both of them once worked for three terms. 答案：B 细节理解题。根据第四段第一句和倒数第二段第一句可知，她们都是各自国家的第一位女性领导人。 4．Who once failed to find a job? A．Jane Addams. B．Sandra Day O Connor. C．Rachel Carson. D．Margaret Thatcher. 答案：B 细节理解题。根据第五段第一句可知，因为是女性，Sandra Day O Connor曾在毕业后找不到工作。 1．shelter n. 居所；住处；庇护 2.service n. 服务；服役 3．rural adj. 乡村的；农村的 4.harmful adj. 有害的 5．standard n. 标准；水平；规格 1．have an effect on 对……有影响 2．in a row 连续；一连串；成一行 B [2017·河北保定摸底]Mars (火星) appears to be flowing with small streams of salty water, at least in the summer, scientists reported on Monday. “It suggests that it would be possible for there to be life today on Mars，” NASA s science mission chief, John Grunsfeld, said at a news conference on September 28, 2015. The streams are about 12 to 15 feet wide and 300 feet or more long, scientists said. “What we re dealing with is wet soil, thin layers of wet soil, not standing water，” said Alfred McEwen of the University of Arizona at Tucson, the principal scientist for the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter s high－resolution imaging experiment. Because liquid water is essential to life, the findings could have major implications for the possibility of Martian life. The researchers said further exploration is needed to determine whether microscopic life exists on the planet. The presence of liquid water could also make life easier for astronauts visiting or living on Mars. Water could be used for drinking and for creating oxygen and rocket fuel. NASA s goal is to send humans there in the 2030s. The evidence of flowing water consists largely of dark, narrow streaks (条痕) on the surface that tend to appear and grow during the warmest Martian months and fade the rest of the year. Mars is extremely cold even in summer, and the streaks are in places where the temperature is as low as minus 10 degrees Fahrenheit. But salt can lower the freezing point of water and melt ice. The source (源头) of the water is a mystery. Scientists noted it could be melting ice. It could be an underground aquifer, which is rock or sand that can hold water. It is possibly water vapor from the thin Martian atmosphere. Or it may be a combination. Michael Meyer, lead scientist for NASA s Mars exploration program, said the only definitive way for now to determine whether there s life on Mars is to collect rocks and soil for analysis on Earth—something a US lander set for lift－off in 2020 will do. 篇章导读：本文是一篇科普文章。在火星上发现了水的痕迹，这是否意味着会有生命存在呢？是否适合人类居住呢？这都有待进一步的科学探究。 5．What would be the best title for the text? A．Streams of water spotted on Mars B．Astronauts will land on Mars C．NASA s Mars exploration program D．A breakthrough in the exploration of Mars 答案：A 主旨大意题。从文中第一段第一句及文章其他内容可知，文章主要是围绕着在火星上似乎有水的痕迹这一主题展开的。故选A。 6．According to John Grunsfeld, there seems to be________on Mars. A．salty water B．standing water C．rocket fuel D．human beings 答案：A 细节理解题。从文中第一段的第一句可知，火星上似乎有咸水。 7．Scientists are uncertain about the________of the water on Mars. A．state B．source C．temperature D．taste 答案：B 细节理解题。从文中倒数第二段第一句“The source of the water is a mystery.”可知，水的源头是个谜。故选B。 8．What matters to the existence of liquid water on Mars? A．The distance from the sun. B．The favorable climate. C．The gravity of the earth. D．The salt in it. 答案：D 细节理解题。从倒数第三段最后一句中的“salt can lower the freezing point of water and melt ice”可知，盐对液态水的存在有重要作用。 1．essential adj. 必要的；至关重要的；基本的；本质的 2．exist vi. 存在；生存 3．evidence n. 证据 4．freezing adj. 极冷的；冰冷的 5．analysis n. 分析 1．deal with 应付；处理 2.consist of 由……组成 Ⅱ.七选五(建议用时7′) 根据短文内容，从短文后的七个选项中选出能填入空白处的最佳选项。选项中有两项为多余选项。 [2017·河北定州中学检测] Question: My 14－year－old son is very disrespectful to my husband and me, and we don t know what to do. He often gets home after dark. And we have a big argument after he comes back. Can you help us? Answer: Your son should, of course, come back before dark, not because you say so, but because it is his responsibility and because you would worry about him if he didn t come home when he promised. __1__ Just tell him that he has to be home on time if he wants to go out next time—and that this is his choice, not yours. His disrespect is part of a bigger issue. Your son desires independence because the young always do when they hit puberty (青春期). New hormones (荷尔蒙), a new need to pull away from their parents results in this desire. __2__ Your son may also be acting up because your discipline hasn t kept up with his growth. A child hates to be corrected when his parents use the same words they used when correcting him a year ago. __3__ He won t even argue with you too much, if you listen to his rants (咆哮) and consider his reasons when you have to say no. These are all signs that you know that your respect is as important to him as his respect is to you. __4__ This Doesn t complete anything and must worsen your relationship. Your child not only needs your respect. __5__ They need your pity for him when things go wrong, rather than tell him what he should have done. Now is the time to give as few orders as possible (but stick to the ones you give)． A．But don t worry. B．But don t argue about it. C．He wants you to react to him at the age he is today. D．So boys and girls are so eager to spread their wings. E．If you don t listen and consider, he won t hear a word you say. F．He is growing physically, mentally, emotionally and even morally. G．He also needs you to encourage his dreams, no matter how strange they are. 篇章导读：本文属于教育类短文。现实生活中很多青少年都很叛逆，不愿意听从父母的教育，想要脱离父母的管教。作者就此问题提出了一些建议。 1．B 根据横线后句“Just tell him that he has to be home on time if he wants to go out next time—and that this is his choice, not yours.”可知，不要跟孩子争辩什么，而是要让他想清楚这是他自己的选择。B选项“But don t argue about it.”符合语境。故选B。 2．D 根据横线前句“New hormones, a new need to pull away from their parents results in this desire.”可知，男孩子和女孩子在青春期时因为荷尔蒙的影响会变得比较叛逆，想要脱离父母的掌控。D选项“So boys and girls are so eager to spread their wings.”符合语境。故选D。 3．C 根据第四段第一句“Your son may also be acting up because your discipline hasn t kept up with his growth.”可知，这个孩子的行为可能是因为你对他的态度没有根据他的年龄的变化而改变，还是当他是小孩子造成的。C选项“He wants you to react to him at the age he is today.”符合语境。故选C。 4．E 根据横线前句“These are all signs that you know that your respect is as important to him as his respect is to you.”可知，你也要尊重他，如果你不倾听他的心声，他也不会听你的话，E选项“If you don t listen and consider, he won t hear a word you say.”符合语境。故选E。 5．G 根据横线前句“Your child not only needs your respect.”可知，你的孩子不仅仅需要你的尊敬。句中的not only与G项中的also形成呼应，句意为“他还需要你鼓励他实现自己的梦想，不论梦想是多么奇特”。故选G项。 Ⅲ.语法填空(建议用时13′) 阅读下面短文，在空白处填入适当的内容(1个单词)或括号内单词的正确形式。 [2017·张家口模拟]Tu Youyou, __1__ was born in 1930, is a Chinese medical scientist and educator. She was educated and carried out research __2__ (entire) in China. She is best known __3__ discovering artemisinin (青蒿素) and dihydroartemisinin (双氢青蒿素), which saved millions of lives. Her discovery of artemisinin as well as __4__ (it) treatment of malaria __5__ (regard) as a significant breakthrough of tropical (热带的) medicine in the 20th century and health __6__ (improve) for people of tropical __7__ (develop) countries in South Asia, Africa, and South America. For her work, Tu received the 2011 Lasker Award in clinical medicine and __8__ 2015 Nobel Prize in Physiology (生理学) or Medicine together with William C. Campbell and Satoshi Omura. Tu is the first Chinese Nobel winner in Physiology or medicine __9__ the first citizen of the People s Republic of China __10__ (receive) the Nobel Prize in natural sciences. 1．________ 2.________ 3.________ 4.________ 5．________ 6.________ 7.________ 8.________ 9．________ 10.________ 篇章导读：本文是一篇记叙文，讲述了中国著名科学家屠呦呦的事迹。 1．who 考查定语从句。who指代先行词Tu Youyou，引导非限制性定语从句，并在从句中作主语。 2．entirely 考查副词。entirely副词，意为“完全地”。 3．for 考查介词。be known for.“因……而出名”。 4．its 考查代词。its修饰名词treatment。 5．is regarded 考查动词的时态和语态。根据句意可知，应用一般现在时的被动语态。因为主语是her discovery，因此用is。 6．improvement 考查名词。从上文中的“of tropical medicine.and.”可知，of后接两个并列名词短语，故此空应填名词。health improvement意为“改善健康”。 7．developing 考查现在分词。developing countries “发展中国家”。 8．the 考查冠词。此处特指2015年度诺贝尔生理或医学奖。 9．and 考查并列连词。根据句意可知为并列关系。 10．to receive 考查非谓语动词。由“the first citizen”可知，应用动词不定式作后置定语。 Ⅳ.书面表达(建议用时20′) [2017·湖北高三大联考] 假如你是龙潭中学高三学生李华，参加了上周六学校组织的远足爬山活动。请你根据以下信息用英语写一篇日记，叙述这次活动的过程及感受，以便发表在?？⒂镌暗厣?。 1．介绍活动主要经过(时间：4月18日，地点：卧龙山)； 2．参加这项活动的感受(享受大自然，放松心情；学会互助，强身健体，磨练意志，利于学习)。 要求：1.句子结构严谨，信息内容完整，篇章连贯； 2．词数100左右?？芬迅?，不计入总词数。 April 18th, Saturday It was fine today. [标准范文] April_18th,_Saturday It_was_fine_today. We gathered at the school gate at 7 a．m. and then we set out to go on a hike. Our destination was to reach the top of Mount Wolong. We had to walk for about 3 hours before we got there. When arriving at the top finally, we could see the breathtaking view. Though the hike was exhausting, it was well worth the extra effort. We not only got relaxed by enjoying the beauty of nature but also learned how to smooth away difficulties, and help each other as well as build our bodies. In the future, we each will have our own mountain to climb in our life. We believe we ll reach the top and see much more beautiful view.